-ISSN : 2620 3502 fe) International Journal on Integrated Education oISEN 2615 3785

An Analysis of Code Mixing and Code Switching Used By Teacher and Students in English Class

Istia Nur Fadilah, Yuli Astutik, M.Pd English Education Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah

Sidoarjo, Indonesia English Education Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah

Sidoarjo, Indonesia Jl. Majapahit, 666 B, Sidoarjo istianurfadilah @umsida.ac.id

ABSTRACT

The purpose of conducting this study is to find out the kinds of code mixing and code switching used by teacher and students in English class and some factors that make the teacher and students use code mixing and code switching in English class. This research used qualitative method. The researcher use basic technique in analyzing the data which are recording the entire content, transcribing the utterances, classifying and organizing the data, grouping data and the last is analyzing data. Based on the data found by the researcher, the result of the research shows 4 types of code mixing and code switching namely outer code mixing (English with Indonesia and Indonesian with English) and external code switching (English into Indonesian and Indonesian into English). There are 51 utterances total of code mixing and switching in English class. And some factors that make they use code mixing and switching because the teacher often found out that the students confused or did not understand, the students lack of vocabulary and English knowledge, feel afraid of being wrong in using English and they are not used to talking only in English. Keywords code; code mixing; code Switching.

INTRODUCTION

Language is a tool to express what is contained in our mind, as a communication tool to deliver a message, and it’s also a representation of the cultural development of a nation. Language as vocal is a sound that gotten from human’s organ of speech, based on this definition that the sound which not gotten from the human’s organ of speech, it is not mentioned with language sound, language as symbol is concern to the fact that there is no connection, or at least in a few cases only a minimal connection, between the sound that people use and the objects to which these sound refer [1]. Language is a mediator used by someone to convey ideas or ideas to others such as; talking to friends, colleagues, spouses, teachers, or parents and so on [2].

In education, language has an important role as a starter in learning process. Language becomes the medium used by educators in delivering the subject matter. Through language, learners can understand what is delivered by educators. Through language too, learners can overcome their difficulties in learning process. The use of language in interaction of learning, basically must use a transparent language and can understanding by learners. Every teachers have a different view about the use of language in interaction of learning. However, teachers must be able to provide information that corresponding with the patterns and rules of language use that can be understanding by educators and learners. One of the strategy for information can be easily understanding by the learners is the teachers use more than one or two language in interaction of learning.

In relation to language and communication, there are known verbal communication differences through oral and written media (oral communication and written communication). Both through written and spoken, humans continue to use language as a tool for communication. Communications still use an agreed symbol system in a language. Therefore, in various languages that already have a linguistic system as a key to make successful verbal communication through oral and written language can be done with certain regulation. In Indonesia, students from primary until higher education should study English in their materials. English in Indonesia is considered as a foreign language and its use is adapted to the situations, conditions and the abilities of learners that enable for the use of

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language in English class. Teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia is not easy because the Indonesian students have to study hard in learning English as a non-native language and they do not find similarity in learning their mother language. So in teaching English, the teacher should be able to use both of language, English and Indonesia to make the communication become more easily. Because the phenomenon of two languages that used by the teacher and students in English class, linguistically occurred switch code and mix code.

Code is a dialect or a particular language chosen for use at any opportunity and a system for communicate between two or more parties. As general, code is a system of words, letters, etc. Especially for the confidentiality purposes [3]. Code mixing happen when people use both languages together to convey that they can change from one language to another in a single utterance [4]. Code mixing is the situation in which people mix two or more language style in the speech act [5]. There are two types of code mixing called inner and outer code mixing [6]. The other aspect is code switching, code switching is a transition event from one code or language to another in conversation. Code switching is a conventional strategy that used to establish, cross or destroy group restriction; to create, evoke or change interpersonal relations with their rights and obligations [7]. For example, speakers using Indonesian language switch to English. The transfer of code is one aspects of language dependency in multilingual or bilingual society. In the code switching each language tends to still support each function in appropriate with its context. Code switching, it occurs when the language is used and changes according to the situation where the people find them self [8]. Two kinds of code switching that are internal code switching and external code switching [9]. Here, the speakers switch one code to another code or they speak in one language to the other language.

METHODOLOGY

In this research about an analysis of code mixing and code switching used by teacher and students in eight grade at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Tulangan used descriptive qualitative approach. Qualitative method is a research that produces descriptive data on researchers or focus and observed behavior from the subject [10]. Qualitative research can be interpreted as a series of activities or the process of capturing information, from the natural conditions in the life of an object, associated with solving a problem both from the point of view theoretical and practical [11]. Therefore, the Qualitative descriptive method is used by the researcher to answer and explain the research problems that is being discussed.

In order to better obtain the result of this study, the researcher used basic data collection technique. The researcher collects the data by recording the entire contain of the conversation between the teacher and the students, then type in the data and underlines the utterances that matches with the topic to be discussed. The last the researcher put the all data that she got into the table, it is used to make simplify the analysis.

Classifying and organizing data is the basic technique in collecting data used by the researchers to classify the utterance according to the topic and then organize the data to be analyzed. Data is taken from conversations between Teachers and students of English class at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Tulangan. These data are analyzed according to Suwito (1983) and Suwito (in Aslinda and Syafyahya, 2007). Further data are also analyzed to answer research question number 2 on the code mixing factor and code switching used in the conversation.

After getting all the required data that contains code mixing and code switching. Researchers put the data into groups depending on the shape. Due to differentiating code mixing and code switching, the researchers applied the theory stated by Suwito (1983) who has dividing code mixing into two types called inner code mixing and outer code mixing. The researcher also applied the theory stated by Suwito (in Aslinda and Syahfafa, 2007) who distinguished two kind of code switching that are internal code switching and external code switching. On the other hand, researchers apply the theory of Hoffman (1991). According to him, there are a number of reasons for bilingual or multilingual people to mix or switch their languages which has presented in previous chapter. The last step was analyzing data. At this step the researcher will present all the data collected using the theory according to the data analysis.

FINDING AND DISCUSSION

This study means to describe the code mixing and code switching utterances made by the teacher and students in the classroom and the factors that make them use code mixing and code switching. In this study, the teacher and students code mixing and code switching utterances is considered as the primary data. The data is recorded from the English teacher and eight grade student’s utterances of SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Tulangan. The other data is collected by doing interview with the teacher and students. The purpose of the interview is to get more information about the reasons of using code mixing and code switching of English words, phrases and sentences into Indonesian vice versa.

Here, the researcher also describes about all the utterances of code mixing and code switching found in the classroom activity used by teacher and students in table appendix | up to 4. Those table are,

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Table 1. Outer code mixing (English with Indonesian)

SOHO SON Bi

PANN POMP Z

>

Sleep in the bed atau sleep on the bed? On the bed. On itu diatas.

In mana? In Yogyakarta.

Page 32 (thirty two) yang “I started”... Duster itu apa pak?

Difficult itu sulit...

Along itu sepanjang...

Mop itu pel-pel an...

Hill itu bukit...

Bored itu bosan...

Broom itu sapu...

Take care itu menjaga...

Come on dibaca dan di artikan mulai dari belakang.

At that day apa? Pada hari itu.. That bisa di artikan sebagai “bahwa’... There were apa? Ada... Confidence apa? Percaya diri... The result hasil akhir.

Event itu nggak harus ada satu... First itu kan bisa satu paragraph. Conclusion atau summary? Have been itu apa?

Have been itu past perfect Vacation itu apa?

Jungle itu apa?

Table 2. Outer code mixing (Indonesian with English)

Utterances

Walaupun nggak understand itu pura-pura iya gitu lho.

Ok, sebelumnya I give congratulation to your friend from the winning competition in...

Inilo, physical itu apa pak?

Jadi, apa itu recount text?

Yang pertama orientation.

Kedua event.

Ketiga re-orientation.

Kemudian conclusion.

Yang mengerjakan di buku tulis hands up! Kan I say dibuku tulis.

Kemudian yang terakhir mana yang re-orientation? Yang punya kamus hands up!

Pak, street itu apa?

Terus sekarang nyari “A man”.

Tiga orang membuat “boat” itu apa?

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Table 3. External code switching (English into Indonesian)

Utterances

Ok, now please repeat after me.

Setelah saya ajari kalian membaca...

Before I ask to you, is there anyone to be a volunteer to read this story? ada yang mau baca? Ada yang pengen pinter? Ada yang pengen sukses?

Have you done your homework?

Yang sudah mengerjakan dibuku tulis hands up! We went...

Kita pergi

Who have dictionary?

Yang punya kamus hands up!

Table 4. External code switching (Indonesian into English)

Utterances

Setelah saya ajari kalian membaca...

I'll choose one of you to read this story. Understand? Sek, saya tanya. Bacanya yang susah yang mana? The difficult way to say...

Ada yang mau baca? Ada yang pengen pinter? Ada yang pengen sukses? Hands up!

Ok, sudah.

Please give applause to Vani.

Ada dua orang. Yang pertama membaca cerita tersebut,

Then the other re-telling the story with your own words. Menceritakan kembali cerita tersebut dengan bahasa kalian sendiri. Understand?

From those table, there are found 24 utterances of English with Indonesian outer code mixing, 15 utterances of Indonesian with English outer code mixing, 5 utterances of English into Indonesian external code switching and 6 utterances of Indonesian into English external code switching. The total number table of the types of code mixing and code switching used by teacher and students have been already shown in table 5, as follows:

Table 5. Total number of the types of code mixing and code switching

Types of code mixing Types of code switching

No. Date Eng with Ind with Eng into Ind into Ind Eng Ind Eng out out ext ext

1. April 2"4, 2018 12 8 2 4

2. April 3", 2018 9 3 2 -

3. April 16", 2018 4 4 1 2

TOTAL 25 15 5 6

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From the interview that had been held, the reason from the teacher and the students are absolutely different. They answer from their own point of view and stated various reasons due to the use of code mixing and code switching in their English class.

The factors of using code mixing and code switching from the teacher’s point of view is caused by the students’ disabilities in understanding the English sentence said by the teacher. So the teacher should mix and switch the language from English to Indonesian or vice versa. According to Hoffman (1991) theory, there are some factors that motivate the teacher to used code mixing and code switching, those are: the teacher want to talked about a particular topic in the class, the teacher did some repetitions to clarify the word that he has talking about, the teacher decide to speak in the other language for a while, the teacher want to emphasize the message, the teacher arouse his students attention, and the last is the teacher want to show his respect.

From students point of view, they explain that they use code mixing and code switching in English class because they lack of vocabulary, feel afraid of being wrong in using English and they are not used to talking only in English. According to Hoffman (1991) theory, there are some factors that motivate the teacher to used code mixing and code switching, those are: the students talking about a particular topic in the class and the students did some repetitions to clarify the word that they have talking about.

CONCLUSSION

According to the result of the finding, the conclusion is the teacher and students use four kinds of code mixing and code switching, those are: English with Indonesian outer code mixing, Indonesian with English outer code mixing, English into Indonesian external code switching and Indonesian into English external code switching. There are 51 utterances total of code mixing and code switching in English class. As the total of outer code mixing are 40 utterances (25 English with Indonesian utterances and 15 Indonesian with English utterances) and 11 utterances of code switching (5 English into Indonesian utterances and 6 Indonesian into English utterances).

Some factors that make them of use code mixing and code switching are when the teacher found out that the students did not understand and cannot get what he means, and when the students lack of vocabulary and English knowledge, feel afraid of being wrong in using English and they are not used to talking only in English.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher would like to say deeply thank you to the advisor, the English teacher and all of the students who helped conducting this research. The researcher also would like to say really thank you to my parents and all of my friends who helped and support the researcher to finish this research. The researcher realizes that this research will never finish without any help and support from them.

REFERENCES

1. Chaer, A. 2003. Linguistik Umum. Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta.

2. Astutik, Yuli. 2014. Code Mixing Debat Capres Cawapres 2014. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/9212130/Code_Mixing_Debat_Capres_Cawapres 2014

3. Wardaugh, Ronald. 1986. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: First Edition. London: Blackwell Publishers.

4. Wardaugh, Ronald. 1986. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: First Edition. London: Blackwell Publishers.

5. Nababan, P.W.J. 1993. Sosiolinguistik: Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

6. Suwito. 1983. Perkenalan Awal Sosiolinguistik:Teori dan Problema. Surakarta: Henary: Offset Surakarta.

7. Wardhaugh, Ronald. 2002. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: Volume 4 of Textbooks in Linguistics. New

8. York: Basil Blackwell.

9. Wardaugh, Ronald. 1986. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: First Edition. London: Blackwell Publishers.

10. Aslinda., Syafyahya, Leni. 2007. Pengantar Sosiolinguistik. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.

11. Bogdan, Robert C. Taylor, Steven J. 1992. Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: A Phenomenological

12. Approach in the Social Sciences, alih bahasa Arief Furchan, John Wiley dan Sons. Surabaya: Usaha Nasional.

13. Nawawi, Hadari. 1995. Metode Penelitian Bidang Sosial. Yogyakarta: UGM Press.

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